Humans came around 12,000 years ago. Due to the security provided by ample food, segments of the human population were able to focus on transforming modest, agricultural communities into flourishing cities. They could build massive temples and palaces and immerse themselves in the blossoming fields of art, philosophy, and politics.
Here are the 7 oldest civilizations in the world with a reputation for invention and innovation.
7 Oldest Civilizations in The World
- The Indigenous Peoples Of Australia 50,000 BCE) – Before European colonizers arrived, the indigenous peoples of Australia inhabited the continent and its islands. They are thought to have originated in Southeast Asia when sea levels were lower, and land bridges were more extensive. According to research, they are the world’s oldest civilization. The earliest human remains date back about 50,000 years; however, inconsistent evidence shows they may have existed as long as 80,000 years ago. Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers who, while being nomadic, maintained deep links to specific sections of land that they may have called home.
- Jiahu (Circa 7000 BCE – 5700 BCE) – Jiahu was a hamlet on ancient China’s central plain, and the people who lived there created some of the first characteristics of Chinese culture. The Jiahu civilization is frequently associated with the Peiligang culture, although researchers disagree on whether the Jiahu people were part of the wider Peiligang group. There is evidence, however, that they were two distinct cultures that emerged in the same period. The Jiahu also produced the world’s oldest wine, some initial playable music, and possibly the earliest form of Chinese writing.
- Mesopotamia (Circa 3500 BCE – 500 BCE) – Scholars thought Mesopotamia was the first civilization for a long time. The region now includes Iraq, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria. For thousands of years, the early humans lived in tiny towns that grew into a scattering of farming areas in approximately 8000 BCE. Agriculture, built on fertile ground, quickly flourished with animal domestication. These villages grew into what we now call cities, with Uruk being the earliest, about 3500 BCE. It housed around 50,000 people at its peak. Mesopotamia is noted for its lucrative trade and the formation of different industries, such as masonry, metallurgy, and leatherwork, in addition to farming.
- The Indus Valley Civilization ( 3300 BCE – 1900 BCE) – The Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as the Harappan Civilization, was South Asia’s earliest urban civilization (modern-day Pakistan and northwest India). The Harappans constructed multiple expansive cities remarkable for their urban design, water supply, intricate drainage systems, and high densities of non-residential structures. The Indus Valley inhabitants also invented other technologies, including one of the world’s earliest systems of regular weights and measures. The Indus Valley Civilization embraced various arts and crafts in addition to mathematics and engineering.
- The Ancient Egyptians ( 3150 BCE – 30 BCE) – The Ancient Egyptian Civilization began in 3150 BCE, when King Menes, the first pharaoh, united Upper and Lower Egypt. Its population mostly congregated around the Nile River’s banks. They are responsible for some of the most magnificent constructions ever constructed, including the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the ancient world’s seven wonders. The Ancient Egyptians were a society of the elite. They achieved significant mathematical advances and were forerunners in medical research. They were the first to exploit rivers as trading channels and to create bronze implements.
- The Maya Civilization ( 2600 BCE – 900 CE) – The Mayan presence in Central America dates back thousands of years, although scholars believe the culture’s true origins date back to the Preclassic period. Around the year 1800 B.C., hunters, and gatherers made the decision to settle down and build houses. The earliest settlements were extremely successful in farming and went on to seed the Maya over their vast region. The ancient Mayan Empire was full of wonders: enormous structures that almost reached the sky; an extraordinary calendar that numbered millions of years; remarkable astrological comprehension; and comprehensive record keeping.
- Akkadian Empire (2334 BCE – 2154 BCE) – The Akkadian Empire is frequently referred to as the world’s first empire. The empire ruled over Akkadian and Sumerian speakers, and their culture spanned Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, which consists of modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Since the empire merged two separate yet related civilizations, its inhabitants spoke Sumerian and Akkadian and wrote in the Akkadian variety of Cuneiform. The Akkadians often traded with the adjacent Indus Valley Civilization. The Sumerians and Akkadians had an abundance of agricultural items that they sold for metal ores, wood, and construction stone.